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Using Directus Auth in Next.js 14

Published May 27th, 2024

Written By
Emmanuel John
Emmanuel John
Guest Author

In this tutorial, you will learn how to implement authentication in a Next.js project using Directus Auth. You’ll register new users, login, handle refresh tokens, and perform create, read, update, and delete operations (CRUD), with the ability to only update or delete a user's own items.

Before You Start ​

You will need:

  • Node.js v18 and above installed on your computer.
  • A Directus project - follow our quickstart guide if you don't already have one.
  • Some experience with Next.js and a newly-created project.

You will also need a a posts collection. Ensure user_created is enabled as an optional as it will be used to create permissions so a user can only edit or delete their own posts. Also create a title input field and a content QYSIWYG field.

Creating a New User Role ​

Create a new role called author. Enable create and read permissions for the posts collection. For update and delete permissions, use custom rules and apply the following filter:

user_created -> id Equals $CURRENT_USER.id
user_created -> id Equals $CURRENT_USER.id

This configuration ensures that users can read all posts but are restricted to updating and deleting only their own posts. Take note of this Role's ID in the sidebar as it will be needed in the next step.

Allowing Public Registration ​

When a user first registers, they will be unauthenticated. In Directus, the permissions of unauthenticated users are controlled by the public role.

In your access control settings open the public role. Find directus_users under system collections, and then open custom permissions for the create operation.

  1. In field permissions, enable only first_name, last_name, email and password options. If you want users to provide other data at the time of registration, enable the respective field.
  2. In field validation, require first_name, last_name, email, and password to not be empty.
  3. In field presets, set the role to the id of the author role. This combination of settings in a custom permission will ensure users provide the required fields, and automatically set the role.

Setting Up Directus In Your Next.js Project ​

In your Next.js project's src directory, create a lib directory. Inside it, create a directus.js file:

js
import { createDirectus, rest, authentication } from '@directus/sdk';

const directus = createDirectus(process.env.BACKEND_URL)
  .with(authentication("cookie", {credentials: "include", autoRefresh: true}))
  .with(rest({credentials: "include"}));

export default directus;
import { createDirectus, rest, authentication } from '@directus/sdk';

const directus = createDirectus(process.env.BACKEND_URL)
  .with(authentication("cookie", {credentials: "include", autoRefresh: true}))
  .with(rest({credentials: "include"}));

export default directus;

In yout src directory, create a constant directory. Inside it, create a index.js file:

js
export const COOKIE_NAME = "OurSiteJWT";
export const AUTH_USER = "auth_user";
export const COOKIE_NAME = "OurSiteJWT";
export const AUTH_USER = "auth_user";

Handling User Session and Logout ​

Server actions are asynchronous functions that are executed on the server. They can be used in server and client components to handle form submissions and data mutations in Next.js applications.

To handle user session and logout, create an action.js file in the lib directory:

js
"use server";
import { revalidatePath } from "next/cache";
import { directusLogin } from "./auth";
import {
  createItem,
  createUser,
  deleteItem,
  readItem,
  readItems,
  readMe,
  updateItem,
  withToken,
} from "@directus/sdk";
import directus from "@/lib/directus";
import { redirect } from "next/navigation";
import { AUTH_USER, COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";

export const handleLogout = async () => {
  cookies().delete(AUTH_USER);
  cookies().delete(COOKIE_NAME);
};

export const userSession = async () => {
  const cookieStore = cookies();
  let token = undefined;
  const cookie = cookieStore.get(COOKIE_NAME);
  if (cookie?.value) {
    token = JSON.parse(cookie?.value);
  }

  const user = {};
  if (token != undefined) {
    user.accessToken = token.data.access_token;
    user.refreshToken = token.data.refresh_token;
  }
  return user;
};
"use server";
import { revalidatePath } from "next/cache";
import { directusLogin } from "./auth";
import {
  createItem,
  createUser,
  deleteItem,
  readItem,
  readItems,
  readMe,
  updateItem,
  withToken,
} from "@directus/sdk";
import directus from "@/lib/directus";
import { redirect } from "next/navigation";
import { AUTH_USER, COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";

export const handleLogout = async () => {
  cookies().delete(AUTH_USER);
  cookies().delete(COOKIE_NAME);
};

export const userSession = async () => {
  const cookieStore = cookies();
  let token = undefined;
  const cookie = cookieStore.get(COOKIE_NAME);
  if (cookie?.value) {
    token = JSON.parse(cookie?.value);
  }

  const user = {};
  if (token != undefined) {
    user.accessToken = token.data.access_token;
    user.refreshToken = token.data.refresh_token;
  }
  return user;
};

The userSession function retrieves user session information from cookies, including access and refresh tokens, and returns an object containing this information.

Setting up a Next.js Layout ​

Create a components directory with navbar subdirectory. Inside navbar create Navbar.jsx and add the following:

javascript
import Link from "next/link"
import Links from "./links/Links"
import { auth } from "@/lib/auth";

const Navbar = async () => {

  const session = await auth();

  return (
    <div>
      <Link href="/">CRUD APP</Link>
      <div>
        <Links session={session}/>
      </div>
    </div>
  )
}
export default Navbar
import Link from "next/link"
import Links from "./links/Links"
import { auth } from "@/lib/auth";

const Navbar = async () => {

  const session = await auth();

  return (
    <div>
      <Link href="/">CRUD APP</Link>
      <div>
        <Links session={session}/>
      </div>
    </div>
  )
}
export default Navbar

In navbar create a links directory with Links.jsx and add the following:

javascript
"use client";
import { useState } from "react";
import NavLink from "./navLink/navLink";
import { handleLogout } from "@/lib/action";

const links = [
  {
    title: "Home",
    path: "/",
  },
  {
    title: "Posts",
    path: "/blog",
  },
  {
    title: "Create Post",
    path: "/create-post",
  },
];

const Links = ({session}) => {
  const [open, setOpen] = useState(false);

  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        {links.map((link) => (
          <NavLink item={link} key={link.title} />
        ))}
        {session?.user ? (
          <>
            <form action={handleLogout}>
              <button>Sign out</button>
            </form>
          </>
        ) : (
          <NavLink item={{ title: "Sign in", path: "/login" }} />
        )}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default Links;
"use client";
import { useState } from "react";
import NavLink from "./navLink/navLink";
import { handleLogout } from "@/lib/action";

const links = [
  {
    title: "Home",
    path: "/",
  },
  {
    title: "Posts",
    path: "/blog",
  },
  {
    title: "Create Post",
    path: "/create-post",
  },
];

const Links = ({session}) => {
  const [open, setOpen] = useState(false);

  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        {links.map((link) => (
          <NavLink item={link} key={link.title} />
        ))}
        {session?.user ? (
          <>
            <form action={handleLogout}>
              <button>Sign out</button>
            </form>
          </>
        ) : (
          <NavLink item={{ title: "Sign in", path: "/login" }} />
        )}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default Links;

In links create a navLink directory with navLink.jsx and add the following:

javascript
"use client";
import Link from "next/link";

const NavLink = ({ item }) => {

  return (
    <Link
      href={item.path}
    >
      {item.title}
    </Link>
  );
};
export default NavLink;
"use client";
import Link from "next/link";

const NavLink = ({ item }) => {

  return (
    <Link
      href={item.path}
    >
      {item.title}
    </Link>
  );
};
export default NavLink;

To render the Navbar component on all pages, update Layout.js as follows:

javascript
import Navbar from "@/components/navbar/Navbar";

export const metadata = {
  title: {
    default:"Next.js 14 Homepage",
  },
  description: "Next.js Directus app",
};

export default function RootLayout({ children }) {
  return (
    <html lang="en">
      <body>
          <div>
            <Navbar />
            {children}
          </div>
      </body>
    </html>
  );
}
import Navbar from "@/components/navbar/Navbar";

export const metadata = {
  title: {
    default:"Next.js 14 Homepage",
  },
  description: "Next.js Directus app",
};

export default function RootLayout({ children }) {
  return (
    <html lang="en">
      <body>
          <div>
            <Navbar />
            {children}
          </div>
      </body>
    </html>
  );
}

In the app directory, create Loading.jsx with the content:

javascript
const Loading = () => {
  return (
    <div>Loading</div>
  )
}
export default Loading
const Loading = () => {
  return (
    <div>Loading</div>
  )
}
export default Loading

Protecting Routes ​

To handle route protection, Create the post/layout.jsx file and add the following:

javascript
"use client"
import { userSession } from "@/lib/action";
import { useRouter } from "next/navigation";
import { useEffect, useState } from "react";

export default function PostLayout({ children }) {
  const [isSuccess, setIsSuccess] = useState(false);
  const router = useRouter();

  useEffect(() => {
    (async () => {
      const user = await userSession();

      if (!user.accessToken) {
        router.push("/login");
        return;
      }

      setIsSuccess(true);
    })();
  }, [router]);

  if (!isSuccess) {
    return <p>Loading...</p>;
  }
  return <div>{children}</div>;
}
"use client"
import { userSession } from "@/lib/action";
import { useRouter } from "next/navigation";
import { useEffect, useState } from "react";

export default function PostLayout({ children }) {
  const [isSuccess, setIsSuccess] = useState(false);
  const router = useRouter();

  useEffect(() => {
    (async () => {
      const user = await userSession();

      if (!user.accessToken) {
        router.push("/login");
        return;
      }

      setIsSuccess(true);
    })();
  }, [router]);

  if (!isSuccess) {
    return <p>Loading...</p>;
  }
  return <div>{children}</div>;
}

This will ensure that only authenticated users can access the create post and update post pages.

Implementing Registration ​

To send user credentials to the Directus backend on the user register form submission, navigate to the action.js file and add the following:

javascript
...

export const register = async (previousState, formData) => {
  try {
    const { first_name, last_name, email, password } =
      Object.fromEntries(formData);
    const result = await directus.request(
      createUser({
        first_name,
        last_name,
        email,
        password,
        role: process.env.USER_ROLE,
phazonoverload marked this conversation as resolved.
      })
    );
    return { message: "Account Created!", status: 201 };
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(e);
    const code = e.errors[0].extensions.code;
    if (code === "RECORD_NOT_UNIQUE") {
      return { message: "This user already exist", status: 409 };
    }
    return {
      message: "An unexpected error occurred, please try again",
      status: 500,
    };
  }
};
...

export const register = async (previousState, formData) => {
  try {
    const { first_name, last_name, email, password } =
      Object.fromEntries(formData);
    const result = await directus.request(
      createUser({
        first_name,
        last_name,
        email,
        password,
        role: process.env.USER_ROLE,
phazonoverload marked this conversation as resolved.
      })
    );
    return { message: "Account Created!", status: 201 };
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(e);
    const code = e.errors[0].extensions.code;
    if (code === "RECORD_NOT_UNIQUE") {
      return { message: "This user already exist", status: 409 };
    }
    return {
      message: "An unexpected error occurred, please try again",
      status: 500,
    };
  }
};

In the components directory, create a registerForm subdirectory. Inside registerForm create registerForm.jsx and add the following:

javascript
//src/app/components/registerForm/registerForm.jsx
"use client";
import { register } from "@/lib/action";
import { useFormState } from "react-dom";
import { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import { useRouter } from "next/navigation";
import Link from "next/link";

const RegisterForm = () => {
  const [state, formAction] = useFormState(register, undefined);

  const router = useRouter();
  const [error, setError] = useState('')

  useEffect(() => {
    state?.status === 201 && router.push("/login");
    state?.status === 409 && setError('A user with this email already exist');
  }, [state?.status, router]);


  return (
    <form action={formAction}>
      <input type="text" placeholder="First name" name="first_name" />
      <input type="text" placeholder="Last name" name="last_name" />
      <input type="email" placeholder="email" name="email" />
      <input type="password" placeholder="password" name="password" />
      <button>Register</button>
      {state?.error}
      <Link href="/login">
        Have an account? <b>Login</b>
      </Link>
      <p>{error}</p>
    </form>
  );
};
export default RegisterForm;
//src/app/components/registerForm/registerForm.jsx
"use client";
import { register } from "@/lib/action";
import { useFormState } from "react-dom";
import { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import { useRouter } from "next/navigation";
import Link from "next/link";

const RegisterForm = () => {
  const [state, formAction] = useFormState(register, undefined);

  const router = useRouter();
  const [error, setError] = useState('')

  useEffect(() => {
    state?.status === 201 && router.push("/login");
    state?.status === 409 && setError('A user with this email already exist');
  }, [state?.status, router]);


  return (
    <form action={formAction}>
      <input type="text" placeholder="First name" name="first_name" />
      <input type="text" placeholder="Last name" name="last_name" />
      <input type="email" placeholder="email" name="email" />
      <input type="password" placeholder="password" name="password" />
      <button>Register</button>
      {state?.error}
      <Link href="/login">
        Have an account? <b>Login</b>
      </Link>
      <p>{error}</p>
    </form>
  );
};
export default RegisterForm;

Create (auth) directory inside the app director. In the (auth), create a register subdirectory. Inside register create page.jsx and add the following:

javascript
//src/app/(auth)/register/page.jsx
import RegisterForm from "@/components/registerForm/registerForm";

const RegisterPage = () => {
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <RegisterForm/>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default RegisterPage;
//src/app/(auth)/register/page.jsx
import RegisterForm from "@/components/registerForm/registerForm";

const RegisterPage = () => {
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <RegisterForm/>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default RegisterPage;

To see the output of what you’ve built so far, run the following command in your terminal:

bash
npm run dev
npm run dev

With the above implementation, users should be able to register. Navigate to http://localhost:3000/register in your browser and you should see the following:

Register page

Implementing Login ​

To send user credentials to the Directus backend on the user login form submission, navigate to the lib directory. Inside lib create auth.js and add the following:

javascript
//src/lib/auth.js
import { COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
export const directusLogin = async (credentials) => {
    const res = await fetch(`${process.env.BACKEND_URL}/auth/login`, {
      method: "POST",
      body: JSON.stringify(credentials),
      headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json" },
    });
    const user = await res.json();
    // If no error and we have user data, return it
    if (!res.ok && user) {
      throw new Error("Wrong credentials!");
    }
    const formatedData = JSON.stringify(user)
    cookies().set(COOKIE_NAME, formatedData)
    return user;
};
//src/lib/auth.js
import { COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
export const directusLogin = async (credentials) => {
    const res = await fetch(`${process.env.BACKEND_URL}/auth/login`, {
      method: "POST",
      body: JSON.stringify(credentials),
      headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json" },
    });
    const user = await res.json();
    // If no error and we have user data, return it
    if (!res.ok && user) {
      throw new Error("Wrong credentials!");
    }
    const formatedData = JSON.stringify(user)
    cookies().set(COOKIE_NAME, formatedData)
    return user;
};

Navigate to the action.js file and add the following:

javascript
...
export const login = async (prevState, formData) => {
  const { email, password } = Object.fromEntries(formData);
  try {
    const user = await directusLogin({ email, password });
    if (user) {
      redirect("/");
    }
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    if (err.message.includes("Wrong credentials!")) {
      return { error: "Invalid username or password" };
    }
    throw err;
  }
};
...
export const login = async (prevState, formData) => {
  const { email, password } = Object.fromEntries(formData);
  try {
    const user = await directusLogin({ email, password });
    if (user) {
      redirect("/");
    }
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    if (err.message.includes("Wrong credentials!")) {
      return { error: "Invalid username or password" };
    }
    throw err;
  }
};

Create a loginForm subdirectory in the components directory. Inside loginForm create loginForm.jsx and add the following:

javascript
//src/app/components/loginForm/loginForm.jsx
"use client";
import { login } from "@/lib/action";
import { useFormState } from "react-dom";
import Link from "next/link";
const LoginForm = () => {
  const [state, formAction] = useFormState(login, undefined);
  return (
    <form action={formAction}>
      <input type="email" placeholder="email" name="email" />
      <input type="password" placeholder="password" name="password" />
      <button>Login</button>
      {state?.error}
      <Link href="/register">
        {"Don't have an account?"} <b>Register</b>
      </Link>
    </form>
  );
};
export default LoginForm;
//src/app/components/loginForm/loginForm.jsx
"use client";
import { login } from "@/lib/action";
import { useFormState } from "react-dom";
import Link from "next/link";
const LoginForm = () => {
  const [state, formAction] = useFormState(login, undefined);
  return (
    <form action={formAction}>
      <input type="email" placeholder="email" name="email" />
      <input type="password" placeholder="password" name="password" />
      <button>Login</button>
      {state?.error}
      <Link href="/register">
        {"Don't have an account?"} <b>Register</b>
      </Link>
    </form>
  );
};
export default LoginForm;

In the (auth) directory, create a login subdirectory. Inside login create page.jsx and add the following:

javascript
//src/app/(auth)/login/page.jsx
import LoginForm from "@/components/loginForm/loginForm";
const LoginPage = () => {
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <LoginForm />
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default LoginPage;
//src/app/(auth)/login/page.jsx
import LoginForm from "@/components/loginForm/loginForm";
const LoginPage = () => {
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <LoginForm />
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default LoginPage;

With the above implementation, registered users should be able to sign in. Navigate to http://localhost:3000/login in your browser and you should see the following:

Login page

Creating New Posts ​

Creating Server Action ​

To create post from Directus backend, navigate to the lib/action.js file and add the following:

javascript
export const addPost = async (prevState, formData) => {
  const { title, content, userId } = Object.fromEntries(formData);
  
  try {
      const result = await directus.request(
        createItem("posts", {
          title,
          content,
          user_created: userId,
          user_role: process.env.USER_ROLE
        })
      );
      if(result.id) {
        revalidatePath("/blog");
        redirect("/blog")
      }
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    return { error: "Something went wrong!" };
  }
};
export const getAuthUser = async (token) => {
  const userData = await directus.request(
    withToken(
      token.data.access_token,
      readMe({
        fields: ["*"],
      })
    )
  );
  return userData;
};
export const addPost = async (prevState, formData) => {
  const { title, content, userId } = Object.fromEntries(formData);
  
  try {
      const result = await directus.request(
        createItem("posts", {
          title,
          content,
          user_created: userId,
          user_role: process.env.USER_ROLE
        })
      );
      if(result.id) {
        revalidatePath("/blog");
        redirect("/blog")
      }
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    return { error: "Something went wrong!" };
  }
};
export const getAuthUser = async (token) => {
  const userData = await directus.request(
    withToken(
      token.data.access_token,
      readMe({
        fields: ["*"],
      })
    )
  );
  return userData;
};

Creating the Page ​

In the post directory, create a subdirectory create-post. Inside create-post create page.jsx with the content:

javascript
//src/app/post/create-post/page.jsx
import CreatePostForm from "@/components/createPostForm/createPostForm";
import { COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
import { getAuthUser } from "@/lib/action";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
const CreatePostPage = async () => {
  let user = {}
  const cook = cookies().get(COOKIE_NAME)
  if(cook) {
    const formatedData = JSON.parse(cook?.value)
    user = await getAuthUser(formatedData)
  }
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <div>
          <CreatePostForm userId = {user?.id} />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default CreatePostPage;
//src/app/post/create-post/page.jsx
import CreatePostForm from "@/components/createPostForm/createPostForm";
import { COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
import { getAuthUser } from "@/lib/action";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
const CreatePostPage = async () => {
  let user = {}
  const cook = cookies().get(COOKIE_NAME)
  if(cook) {
    const formatedData = JSON.parse(cook?.value)
    user = await getAuthUser(formatedData)
  }
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <div>
          <CreatePostForm userId = {user?.id} />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default CreatePostPage;

In the components directory, create a subdirectory createPostForm. Inside createPostForm create createPostForm.jsx with the content:

javascript
//src/components/createPostForm/createPostForm.jsx
"use client"
import { addPost } from "@/lib/action";
import { useFormState } from "react-dom";
const CreatePostForm = ({userId}) => {
  const [state, formAction] = useFormState(addPost, undefined);
  
  return (
    <div>
      <form action={formAction} >
        <h1>Add New Post</h1>
        <input type="hidden" name="userId" value={userId} />
        <input type="text" name="title" placeholder="Title" />
        <textarea type="text" name="content" placeholder="content" rows={10} />
        <button>Add</button>
        {state?.error}
      </form>
    </div>
  );
};
export default CreatePostForm;
//src/components/createPostForm/createPostForm.jsx
"use client"
import { addPost } from "@/lib/action";
import { useFormState } from "react-dom";
const CreatePostForm = ({userId}) => {
  const [state, formAction] = useFormState(addPost, undefined);
  
  return (
    <div>
      <form action={formAction} >
        <h1>Add New Post</h1>
        <input type="hidden" name="userId" value={userId} />
        <input type="text" name="title" placeholder="Title" />
        <textarea type="text" name="content" placeholder="content" rows={10} />
        <button>Add</button>
        {state?.error}
      </form>
    </div>
  );
};
export default CreatePostForm;

The CreatePostForm component provides a form for creating a new post. When the form is submitted, it calls the addPost function to add the post to the Directus backend. The form state is managed using the useFormState hook.

With the above implementation, registered users should be able to create new posts. Navigate to http://localhost:3000/create-post in your browser and you should see the following:

Create post

Creating a Listing ​

To render a list of all blog posts, you need to send a request to the Directus backend to fetch all post data from the posts collection created earlier in the Directus project.

Navigate to lib/action.js and add the following:

javascript
//src/lib/action.js
export const getPosts = async () => {
  try {
    const result = await directus.request(
      readItems("posts", {
        fields: [
          "title",
          "id",
          "content",
          "date_created",
          "user_created.*",
        ],
      })
    );
    return result;
  } catch (error) {
    console.log(error);
  }
};
//src/lib/action.js
export const getPosts = async () => {
  try {
    const result = await directus.request(
      readItems("posts", {
        fields: [
          "title",
          "id",
          "content",
          "date_created",
          "user_created.*",
        ],
      })
    );
    return result;
  } catch (error) {
    console.log(error);
  }
};

In the app directory, create a blog subdirectory. Inside blog create page.jsx and add the following to render the retrieved data:

javascript
//src/app/blog/page.jsx
import PostCard from "@/components/postCard/postCard";
import { getPosts } from "@/lib/action";

const BlogPage = async () => {
  const posts = await getPosts()

  return (
    <div>
      {posts.map((post) => (
        <div key={post.id}>
          <PostCard post={post} />
        </div>
      ))}
    </div>
  );
};
export default BlogPage;
//src/app/blog/page.jsx
import PostCard from "@/components/postCard/postCard";
import { getPosts } from "@/lib/action";

const BlogPage = async () => {
  const posts = await getPosts()

  return (
    <div>
      {posts.map((post) => (
        <div key={post.id}>
          <PostCard post={post} />
        </div>
      ))}
    </div>
  );
};
export default BlogPage;

The blog page fetches posts data asynchronously using the getPosts function and renders a PostCard component for each post fetched. In the components directory, create a postCard subdirectory. Inside postCard create postCard.jsx and add the following to render the posts data:

javascript
//src/components/postCard/postCard.jsx
import Link from "next/link"
import PostUser from "../postUser/postUser"

const PostCard = async ({post}) => {

  return (
    <div >
      <div >
        <h1>{post.title}</h1>

        <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ __html: post.content }}></div>
        <div >
          <PostUser user={post.user_created} />
        </div>
        <Link href={`/blog/${post.id}`}>READ MORE</Link>
      </div>
    </div>
  )
}
export default PostCard
//src/components/postCard/postCard.jsx
import Link from "next/link"
import PostUser from "../postUser/postUser"

const PostCard = async ({post}) => {

  return (
    <div >
      <div >
        <h1>{post.title}</h1>

        <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ __html: post.content }}></div>
        <div >
          <PostUser user={post.user_created} />
        </div>
        <Link href={`/blog/${post.id}`}>READ MORE</Link>
      </div>
    </div>
  )
}
export default PostCard

Click on the READ MORE link to get to the corresponding detail blog post page . In the components directory, create a postUser subdirectory. Inside postUser create postUser.jsx and add the following to render the post creator data:

javascript
//src/components/postUser/postUser.jsx
import directus from "@/lib/directus";

const PostUser = async ({ user }) => {

  return (
    <div>
      <img
        src={
          user?.photo
            ? `${directus.url}assets/${user.photo.filename_disk}?width=100`
            : "/noavatar.png"
        }
        alt=""
        fill
      />
      <div>
        <span>Author</span>
        <span
        >{`${user?.first_name} ${user?.last_name}`}</span>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default PostUser;
//src/components/postUser/postUser.jsx
import directus from "@/lib/directus";

const PostUser = async ({ user }) => {

  return (
    <div>
      <img
        src={
          user?.photo
            ? `${directus.url}assets/${user.photo.filename_disk}?width=100`
            : "/noavatar.png"
        }
        alt=""
        fill
      />
      <div>
        <span>Author</span>
        <span
        >{`${user?.first_name} ${user?.last_name}`}</span>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default PostUser;

With the above implementation, users should be able to view all posts. Navigate to http://localhost:3000/blog in your browser and you should see all posts:

Post list

Viewing Single Posts ​

Creating Server Action ​

To fetch a single post data from Directus backend, navigate to the lib/action.js file and add the following:

JavaScript
//src/lib/action.js
export const getPost = async (slug) => {
  try {
    const post = await directus.request(
      readItem("posts", slug, {
        fields: [
          "title",
          "id",
          "content",
          "date_created",
          "user_created.*",
        ],
      })
    );
    return post;
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    throw new Error("Failed to fetch post!");
  }
};
//src/lib/action.js
export const getPost = async (slug) => {
  try {
    const post = await directus.request(
      readItem("posts", slug, {
        fields: [
          "title",
          "id",
          "content",
          "date_created",
          "user_created.*",
        ],
      })
    );
    return post;
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    throw new Error("Failed to fetch post!");
  }
};

The getPost function makes a request to Directus using the directus.request() method, specifying to read a single item from the "posts" collection based on the provided slug. Within the request, it specifies the fields to retrieve for the post.

Creating the Page ​

Each blog post links to a single post detail page. In the blog directory, create a subdirectory [slug]. Inside [slug] create page.jsx with the content:

JavaScript
//src/app/blog/[slug]/page.jsx
import { redirect } from 'next/navigation'
import PostUser from "@/components/postUser/postUser";
import { Suspense } from "react";
import { deletePost, getAuthUser, getPost } from "@/lib/action";
import Link from "next/link";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
import { COOKIE_NAME } from '@/constants';
export const generateMetadata = async ({ params }) => {
  const { slug } = params;
  const post =  await getPost(slug)
  return {
    title: post.title,
  };
};
const SinglePostPage = async ({ params }) => {
  const { slug } = params;
  const post = await getPost(slug)
  let user = {}
  const cook = cookies().get(COOKIE_NAME)
  if(cook) {
    const formatedData = JSON.parse(cook?.value)
    user = await getAuthUser(formatedData)
  }
  const handleDelete = async (data) => {
    "use server";
    const postId = data.get("postId");
    await deletePost(postId)
    redirect('/blog')
  };
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <h1>{post.title}</h1>
        <div>
          {post && (
            <Suspense fallback={<div>Loading...</div>}>
              <PostUser user={post.user_created} />
            </Suspense>
          )}
          <div>
            <span>Published</span>
            <span>
              {post.date_created.toString().slice(3, 16)}
            </span>
          </div>
          {user?.id === post?.user_created?.id &&  <div>
            <Link href={`/post/update-post/${post.id}`}>Edit</Link>
            <form action={handleDelete}>
            <input name="postId" style={{visibility: "hidden"}} value={post?.id}/>
            <input name="userId" style={{visibility: "hidden"}} value={user?.id}/>
            <button >Delete</button>
          </form>
          </div>}
        </div>
        <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ __html: post.content }}></div>
Member
@phazonoverload phazonoverload 2 weeks ago
Please make note that this can only be used for trusted content.

@BB-Loft	Reply...
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default SinglePostPage;
//src/app/blog/[slug]/page.jsx
import { redirect } from 'next/navigation'
import PostUser from "@/components/postUser/postUser";
import { Suspense } from "react";
import { deletePost, getAuthUser, getPost } from "@/lib/action";
import Link from "next/link";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
import { COOKIE_NAME } from '@/constants';
export const generateMetadata = async ({ params }) => {
  const { slug } = params;
  const post =  await getPost(slug)
  return {
    title: post.title,
  };
};
const SinglePostPage = async ({ params }) => {
  const { slug } = params;
  const post = await getPost(slug)
  let user = {}
  const cook = cookies().get(COOKIE_NAME)
  if(cook) {
    const formatedData = JSON.parse(cook?.value)
    user = await getAuthUser(formatedData)
  }
  const handleDelete = async (data) => {
    "use server";
    const postId = data.get("postId");
    await deletePost(postId)
    redirect('/blog')
  };
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <h1>{post.title}</h1>
        <div>
          {post && (
            <Suspense fallback={<div>Loading...</div>}>
              <PostUser user={post.user_created} />
            </Suspense>
          )}
          <div>
            <span>Published</span>
            <span>
              {post.date_created.toString().slice(3, 16)}
            </span>
          </div>
          {user?.id === post?.user_created?.id &&  <div>
            <Link href={`/post/update-post/${post.id}`}>Edit</Link>
            <form action={handleDelete}>
            <input name="postId" style={{visibility: "hidden"}} value={post?.id}/>
            <input name="userId" style={{visibility: "hidden"}} value={user?.id}/>
            <button >Delete</button>
          </form>
          </div>}
        </div>
        <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ __html: post.content }}></div>
Member
@phazonoverload phazonoverload 2 weeks ago
Please make note that this can only be used for trusted content.

@BB-Loft	Reply...
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default SinglePostPage;

The SinglePostPage renders the single post detail with options for editing and deleting the post if the logged in user is the post creator. The post content is rendered using dangerouslySetInnerHTML to handle HTML content safely. It can only be used for trusted content. Click on the READ MORE link in a post to get to the corresponding detail blog post page as follows:

Single post detail

Updating a Post ​

Creating Server Action ​

To update post data from Directus backend, navigate to the lib/action.js file and add the following:

javascript
export const updatePost = async (formData) => {
  const { id, title, content, userId } = formData;
  try {
    const result = await directus.request(
      updateItem('posts', id, {
        title: title,
        user_updated: userId,
        content,
      })
    );
    if(result.id) {
      revalidatePath("/blog");
      redirect("/blog")
    }
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    return { error: "Something went wrong!" };
  }
};
export const updatePost = async (formData) => {
  const { id, title, content, userId } = formData;
  try {
    const result = await directus.request(
      updateItem('posts', id, {
        title: title,
        user_updated: userId,
        content,
      })
    );
    if(result.id) {
      revalidatePath("/blog");
      redirect("/blog")
    }
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    return { error: "Something went wrong!" };
  }
};

The updatePost function handles both the case of updating the post content and the case of updating the associated image. If a new image is uploaded, it first uploads the image and then updates the post with the new image ID. If an existing image is used, it directly updates the post with the existing image ID.

Creating the Page ​

In the post directory, create a subdirectory update-post. Inside update-post create a subdirectory [slug]. Inside [slug] create pages.jsx with the content:

javascript
//src/app/post/update-post/[slug]/page.jsx
import { getAuthUser, getPost } from "@/lib/action";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
import UpdatePostForm from "@/components/updatePostForm/updatePostForm";
import { COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
const UpdatePage = async ({ params }) => {
  const { slug } = params;
  const post = getPost(slug)
  let user = {}
  const cook = cookies().get(COOKIE_NAME)
  if(cook) {
    const formatedData = JSON.parse(cook?.value)
    user = await getAuthUser(formatedData)
  }
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <div>
          <UpdatePostForm post={post} userId = {user?.id} />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default UpdatePage;
//src/app/post/update-post/[slug]/page.jsx
import { getAuthUser, getPost } from "@/lib/action";
import { cookies } from "next/headers";
import UpdatePostForm from "@/components/updatePostForm/updatePostForm";
import { COOKIE_NAME } from "@/constants";
const UpdatePage = async ({ params }) => {
  const { slug } = params;
  const post = getPost(slug)
  let user = {}
  const cook = cookies().get(COOKIE_NAME)
  if(cook) {
    const formatedData = JSON.parse(cook?.value)
    user = await getAuthUser(formatedData)
  }
  return (
    <div>
      <div>
        <div>
          <UpdatePostForm post={post} userId = {user?.id} />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};
export default UpdatePage;

In the components directory, create a subdirectory updatePostForm. Inside updatePostForm create updatePostForm.jsx with the content:

javascript
//src/components/updatePostForm/updatePostForm.jsx
"use client"
import { updatePost } from "@/lib/action";
import { useState } from "react";
const UpdatePostForm = ({userId, post}) => {
  const [formState, setFormState] = useState({
    id: post.id,
    title: post.title,
    content: post.content,
    userId
  });
  const handleSubmit = () => {
    updatePost(formState)
  }
  
  return (
    <div>
      <form onSubmit={handleSubmit}>
        <h1>Update {post.title}</h1>
        <input type="text" name="title" value={formState.title} onChange={(e)=> setFormState({...formState, title: e.target.value}) } placeholder="Title" />
        <textarea type="text" name="content" value={formState.content} onChange={(e)=> setFormState({...formState, content: e.target.value}) } placeholder="content" rows={10} />
        <button>Update</button>
      </form>
    </div>
  );
};
export default UpdatePostForm;
//src/components/updatePostForm/updatePostForm.jsx
"use client"
import { updatePost } from "@/lib/action";
import { useState } from "react";
const UpdatePostForm = ({userId, post}) => {
  const [formState, setFormState] = useState({
    id: post.id,
    title: post.title,
    content: post.content,
    userId
  });
  const handleSubmit = () => {
    updatePost(formState)
  }
  
  return (
    <div>
      <form onSubmit={handleSubmit}>
        <h1>Update {post.title}</h1>
        <input type="text" name="title" value={formState.title} onChange={(e)=> setFormState({...formState, title: e.target.value}) } placeholder="Title" />
        <textarea type="text" name="content" value={formState.content} onChange={(e)=> setFormState({...formState, content: e.target.value}) } placeholder="content" rows={10} />
        <button>Update</button>
      </form>
    </div>
  );
};
export default UpdatePostForm;

The UpdatePostForm component provides a form for updating an existing post. When the form is submitted, it calls the updatePost function to update the post in the Directus backend. Click on the Edit link in a detail post page to get to the corresponding update post page as follows:

Edit page

Deleting Posts ​

To delete post data from the Directus backend, navigate to the lib/action.js file and add the following:

javascript
export const deletePost = async (postId) => {
  try {
    await directus.request(deleteItem('posts', postId));
    revalidatePath("/blog");
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    return { error: "Something went wrong!" };
  }
};
export const deletePost = async (postId) => {
  try {
    await directus.request(deleteItem('posts', postId));
    revalidatePath("/blog");
  } catch (err) {
    console.log(err);
    return { error: "Something went wrong!" };
  }
};

Click the Delete button on a detail post page to delete the post.

Summary ​

With this tutorial, you’ve learnt how to implement Directus authentication in a Next.js 14 Project, dynamically create, read, update, delete posts, and successfully built a full-stack CRUD application with Directus for the backend and Next.js for the frontend.

There are so many ways this can be improved, and I can’t wait to see what you build next with Directus and Next.js.

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